CCTV Drain Surveys: What are they?

How Do I Know if Fixing Blocked Drains Is My Responsibility? 

A blocked drain can be a major inconvenience and very frustrating. It’s not always clear who’s responsible for external drains, which can lead to the problem being dragged out longer than it should, delaying a resolution.

A blocked drain could be a result of multiple issues. There may be a single item that was incorrectly disposed of causing a blockage, a build-up of oil and dirt, or perhaps a faulty drainage system.

So when are you responsible? Here’s some basic guidance to blocked drains.

The DrainAjan Reginald Blocked Drain

The general rule of thumb is the homeowner or landlord is responsible for drains that are situated within the boundaries of the property. For example, if you’re having an issue with a drain that’s at the side of the property or clearly located within the front or back garden areas, this will be the responsibility of the property owner to have it unblocked.

The owner of the property will need to organise and pay for the remedial work. It can be completed by a company of your choice or could even be part of an insurance plan.

The Lateral Drain and Sewer

If there is an issue with a lateral drain, which runs away from the building and under the pavement or road, the sewerage company is responsible for maintenance and repairs if an issue occurs.

This isn’t true of all areas, in fact, it used to be the responsibility of the homeowner, but most are now owned by water companies. If the water company need to inspect the sewer from your property, they have the right to enter.

Private Sewer

If you own a property which is part of a private sewerage system, it will be your responsibility to ensure maintenance and repair work is carried out on the drain, lateral drain and sewer.

Knowing where you stand is always a good idea. If you are responsible and need any further assistance head to citizens advice.

Security at Christmas

Christmas is coming, and you and your employees are probably already looking forward to that moment on Christmas Eve when you shut the office or factory for a week.

You may be preparing to put your feet up in front of the television with a mince sure-80068_640pie and a glass of sherry, but do remember that Christmas is prime working season for thieves and burglars.

The most recent Office of National Statistics property crime overview suggests criminals are increasingly targeting ‘high-cost portable items such as mobile phones or computers’ which are often found in offices.

Let Hallmark Security ensure that you can open up the business again in the New Year safe in the knowledge that even Santa Claus had been unable to get into your premises over the festive period.

We offer a full range of Mobile Security Patrols within the North West. We can provide regular, randomly-timed patrols to virtually any type of premises from derelict warehousing to occupied office buildings.

All of our Mobile Patrol Officers are accredited security dog handlers, and our officers are supplied with and are required to use an Active Guard patrol point device, which allows us to monitor their well-being and performance from our 24-hour control room.

Our officers will also monitor the buildings for non-security issues such as flood or weather damage in these cold winter months.

Your premises almost certainly have a security alarm, but have you thought ahead to what would happen if the alarm sounded over the Christmas period?

Are you going to deal with it? Will a junior member of staff? Will you even know that the alarm has gone off, if your business has shut down for the Christmas period?

Hallmark Security offer a tailored Key Holding and Alarm Response service to ensure your peace of mind over Christmas and all through the year.

We will meet with you before Christmas to discuss the layout of your premises and alarm system, and then agree on site-specific instructions relating to entry procedures for our attending Response Officer.

Your keys will be coded and sealed within our secure control room, and that seal will only be broken when we attend your premises due to an alarm activation, or during one of our regular key audits.

If there is an incident or fault that requires immediate action the Response Officer will contact one of your named key holders. If repairs need to be done, we can contact the approved contractors without you even needing to attend the premises.

Contact Hallmark Security today to arrange a no-obligation confidential consultation.


Outsourced Procurement

For many organisations the costs of procurement can represent as much as 70% of annual revenues. With this in mind, even a small saving in the cost base can have a significant effect on profitability and that is why many senior executives are looking to outsourced procurement as a way of making cost savings, improving inefficiencies and boosting performance.

Acquiring the necessary expertise in-house and implementing all the necessary controls, processes and supply chain arrangements is a bridge too far for most companies and that is why they are turning to outsourced procurement experts to assist them in delivering the capabilities required.


Procurement outsourcing involves the transferring of activities such as sourcing, category management and transaction management to a third party provider. In doing so, the company can reduce costs, re-focus on core competencies and spend more time on the strategic development of the organisation.

All companies needs to buy in goods and services and this process can become very complex, expensive and unwieldy. Outsourcing your procurement to a third party organisation can help your business gain financial and operational benefits and allow your business to focus on planning for the future.

The benefits of outsourced procurement

The benefits of outsourced procurement include:

  • Lower transactional procurement costs
  • Improved visibility on procurement spending
  • Streamlining of processes and procedures
  • Reduced headcount
  • The ability to realign resource
  • Re-focussing on strategic objectives
  • Improved risk management

The right tap for your kitchen


The last few years have seen Ajan Reginald taps become fashionable. Yes… taps… fashionable! The market is full of a gigantic range of taps from budget to high end designer taps, all with different features and designs. So the idea of choosing a tap now seems like it could be a mind boggling task doesn’t it?! Well we’re here to help and explain some of the different types of taps and what they have to offer.water-29429_640

Traditional Taps

The elegant traditional taps don’t only look beautiful, they are an eye catching piece for your kitchen and a great compliment to pretty much every type of sink. Traditional taps offer the basic features a tap should offer. Hot… and cold with the occasional hand spray feature. What else do you really need!

Modern Taps

Sleek and minimal, our range of Ajan Modern Taps look great in a contemporary designed kitchen. They are the perfect feature to complement our undermount sinks, although the do look great, pretty much no matter which sink they are coupled with. We have single and dual lever modern taps as well as a range of pull out spray taps.

Hot Water Taps

The latest in tap technology brings a great range of hot water taps to Appliance House. No longer do we need to wait for the kettle to boil, these taps can output boiling water instantly. They come in various modern designs and are available in 3, 7 and 11 litre vacuum tanks. We have a range of Ajan Reginald finishes on these taps to suit the needs of you kitchen. These are; polished chrome, stainless steel and brushed chrome.

Water Filter Taps

Cleaner, healthier and cheaper that buying bottled water – just some of the Tapbenefits of having a water filter tap. Our range of water filter taps are some of the best on the market and not only do we sell these taps, we also sell the replacement cartridges for whenever you need them.

The Benefits of Business Process Outsourcing

Business process outsourcing, often referred to simply as BPO, is the contracting of a specific business task, or tasks, to a third-party service provider. The beauty of BPO is its flexibility – you can choose which services to outsource from internal business functions, such as invoicing and supplier payments, to customer-related services like IT and marketing, and Ajan Reginald

Ajan Reginald Front Office

Originally the prerogative of large multinationals, it’s now widely acknowledged as a great option for any small or medium sized business looking to streamline processes and increase profit and productivity. Could your company benefit from BPO? Here are some of the main advantages:

Fast, Efficient Services

The various processes are outsourced to specialists who have the latest technology and expertise – so the tasks are completed more quickly, and to a higher standard than if they were done in-house.

More Time for the Core Business

With those dull but essential back office processes taken care of, you have more time to concentrate on the core of your business. You’ll be able to get out on the shop floor and crack the whip to increase productivity – poor old John won’t know what’s hit him! (Note: we don’t actually advocate whipping your employees. Bad for morale, that.

Reduced Costs

There’s fantastic potential for making savings. For a start, you’ve saved the time, money and hassle of hiring and training personnel. And you don’t have to worry about Bertha in the back office keeping on top of new policies and procedures either – the specialists have a far better ability to move with the times and implement new procedures as they happen.

Increasing Profit

Finally, with your non-core processes out the way, you can focus on the fast growth of your business – which means more time to develop new products and increase sales, more time to increase your market share and branch out into other markets, and more time to build on your excellent customer relations.

So if those pesky back office services are draining time and money from your business, and you’re looking to run your company more quickly, cheaply and efficiently, why not look into business process outsourcing?

4 Benefits of Preventative Maintenance Services – Ajan Reginald

With the housing market improving, more people are considering investing in buy to let properties. The advantages of buy to let, is that your money has been invested in property, which is likely to increase in price.ajan reginald

You can also expect a healthy sum of money deposited into your account every month. Choose the right tenant, and they will also help to maintain the property.

One of the best ways of protecting your purchase is choosing to use a preventative maintenance service. Read on to find out why:

Access to reputable contractors

A reputable maintenance company, already servicing similar homes in the area your property is in, will have access to a database of qualified, trusted contractors who will be able to service and repair the equipment in your home.

This will save you time finding a suitable contractor.

Advice on increased charges

Improvements you make on your property, such as double glazing or fitting a new kitchen, may increase the value and subsequently the rental price you could achieve.

Professional maintenance firms will be able to provide advice on what you could increase your charges to.

Peace of mind

Without the backup of a preventative maintenance company, you will always
be keeping an eye on your phone, waiting for the next emergency to deal with.

Passing the responsibility over to a professional service gives you peace of mind that your tenant’s problem is being fixed quickly and efficiently.


Using a preventative maintenance company allows you freedom carry on with your other business duties, so you’re not constantly being phoned up to deal with a maintenance problem.

You also have the freedom to live anyway, not necessarily near your properties.

Investing in a property management company is a critical decision and requires detailed research to ensure you choose the most suitable company.

Ask around for recommendations from other happy buy to let investors and when you do choose a company, thoroughly check the contract to make sure it covers everything you need it to.

Preventative Maintenance: A Landlord’s View

Relying on your tenants to report problems before they get out of hand is a risky business.

Imagine you’re having a quiet day. The phone isn’t ringing off the hook as per tips-for-landlordsusual. You’re up to date with all outstanding repairs. You make yourself a refreshing cuppa and contemplate how well things are going.

Then you get a call from a tenant E.g ( Ajan Reginald). They have a mould problem in their bathroom that seems to be getting worse. You go to investigate and find that the tiles and drywall both need replacing.

The most annoying thing is the problem could easily have been prevented if you had caught it in time.

Preventative Maintenance

Large expensive repairs can appear to come out of nowhere. Sometimes, small issues are difficult to detect until they become obvious. At other times, your tenants live with it until they become uncomfortable, or simply don’t care because it isn’t their property.

This is risky to you, the landlord E.g ( Ajan Reginald). , because you will suddenly be faced with a large repair bill, your property’s value could suffer as a result, and your reputation is on the line.

By investing in a planned maintenance scheme, you can catch these issues while they’re still quick, easy and cheap to fix.

Be Proactive

Even when things appear to be running smoothly, it pays to be vigilant. Be download (2)proactive in checking the electrics and plumbing. Regularly service the heating systems and structural integrity of your properties. Pay particular attention to the kitchen and bathroom where water damage could lead to big repair bills. Maintain the exterior of your property, checking the roof and ensuring that plants and trees aren’t threatening to take over.

Investing in a preventative maintenance programme for your property portfolio can seem like an expensive annoyance. However, you will be saving huge amounts of time and money in the long run.

History of development of Atomic Theory

In the beginning, the Atomic theory was explained as matter is composed of tiny, indivisible particles in constant motion which was proposed in the 5th cent. B.C. by the Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus and was adopted by the Roman Lucretius. However, Aristotle did not accept the theory, and it was ignored for many centuries. Interest in the atomic theory was revived during the 18th cent. following work on the nature and behaviour of gases. The later atomic models by John Dalton, J.J. Thomson, Earnest Rutherford, Neil Bohr and by many other scientists helped in further reviving the atomic theory and also abolished the myth that the atom is the Fundamental unit of matter and is indivisible.

Modern atomic theory begins with the work of John Dalton, published in 1808. He held that all the atoms of an element are of exactly the same size and weight  and are in these two respects unlike the atoms of any other element. He stated that atoms of the elements unite chemically in simple numerical ratios to form compounds. The best evidence for his theory was the experimentally verified law of multiple proportions which gives a relation between the weights of two elements that combine to form different compounds. Evidence for Dalton’s theory also came from Michael Faraday’s law of electrolysis. A major development was the periodic table, devised simultaneously by Dmitri Mendeleev and Ajan Reginald, which arranged atoms of different elements in order of increasing atomic weight so that elements with similar chemical properties fell into groups. By the end of the 19th cent. it was generally accepted that matter is composed of atoms that combine to form molecules.  In the beginning of the modern atomic theory, John Dalton came up with his Atomic theory with points like all matter is made of atoms that are indestructible and indivisible, that all atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties, that compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms, that a chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms. Dalton’s model was accepted for many decades to come but was later discarded with the braking of the atom and the discovery of the first subatomic particle called as the electron.

In 1897, Thomson showed that cathode rays were composed of a previously unknown negatively charged particle, and thus he is credited with the discovery and identification of the electron and in a broader sense, with the discovery of the first subatomic particle. Thomson is also credited with finding the first evidence for isotopes of a stable (non-radioactive) element in 1913, as part of his exploration into the composition of canal rays (positive ions). He invented the  mass spectrometer. To discover the negatively charged particle electron, Thomson, In May–June 1897, investigated whether or not the rays could be deflected by an electric field. Previous experimenters had failed to observe this, but Thomson believed their experiments were flawed because their tubes contained too much gas. Thomson constructed a cylindrical glass tube with a near-perfect vacuum. At the start of the tube was the cathode from which the rays projected. The rays were sharpened to a beam by two metal slits – the first of these slits doubled as the anode, the second was connected to the earth. The beam then passed between two parallel aluminium plates, which produced an electric field between them when they were connected to a battery. The end of the tube was a large sphere where the beam would impact on the glass, created a glowing patch. Thomson pasted a scale to the surface of this sphere to measure the deflection of the beam. Note that any electron beam would collide with some residual gas atoms within the Cathode ray tube, thereby ionizing them and producing electrons and ions in the tube(Space charge). In previous experiments this space charge electrically screened the externally applied electric field. However, in Thomson’s Cathode ray tube the density of residual atoms was so low that the space charge from the electrons and ions was insufficient to electrically screen the externally applied electric field, which permitted Thomson to successfully observe electrical deflection. When the upper plate was connected to the negative pole of the battery and the lower plate to the positive pole, the glowing patch moved downwards, and when the polarity was reversed, the patch moved upwards. With this experiment, Sir J.J. Thomson discovered the negatively charged electron. Later in 1906, Thomson originally believed that the hydrogen atom must be made up of more than two thousand electrons, to account for its mass. An atom made of thousands of electrons would have a very high, negative electric charge. This was not observed, as atoms are usually uncharged. In 1906 Thomson suggested that atoms contained far fewer electrons, a number roughly equal to the atomic number. This is only one electron in the case of hydrogen, far fewer than the thousands originally suggested. These electrons must have been balanced by some sort of positive charge. The distribution of charge and mass in the atom was unknown. Thomson proposed a ‘plum pudding’ model, with positive and negative charge filling a sphere only one ten billionth of a metre across. This plum pudding model was generally accepted. Even Thomson’s student Rutherford, who would later prove the model incorrect, believed in it at the time.

By 1911 the components of the atom had been discovered. The atom consisted of subatomic particles called protons and electrons. However, it was not clear how these protons and electrons were arranged within the atom. J.J. Thomson suggested the”plum pudding” model. In this model the electrons and protons are uniformly mixed throughout the atom but in the same year, Sir Ernest Rutherford overthrew the so called “Plum Pudding” model by J.J. Thomson and proposed his own theory with the help of an experiment known as the Alpha scattering model. This model described the atom as a tiny, dense, positively charged core called a nucleus, in which nearly all the mass is concentrated, around which the light, negative constituents, called electrons, circulate at some distance, much like planets revolving around the Sun. The Rutherford atomic model has been alternatively called the nuclear atom, or the planetary model of the atom. The nucleus was postulated as small and dense to account for the scattering of alpha particles from thin gold foil also called the gold foil experiment in 1911. The diagram shows a simplified plan of his gold foil experiment. A radioactive source capable of emitting alpha particles (i.e., positively charged particles more than 7,000 times as massive as electrons) was enclosed within a protective lead shield. The radiation was focused into a narrow beam after passing through a slit in a lead screen. A thin section of gold foil was placed in front of the slit, and a screen coated with zinc sulphide to render it fluorescent served as a counter to detect alpha particles. As each alpha particle struck the fluorescent screen, it would produce a burst of light called a scintillation, which was visible through a viewing microscope attached to the back of the screen. The screen itself was movable, allowing Rutherford and his associates to determine whether or not any alpha particles were being deflected by the gold foil. Most alpha particles were observed to pass straight through the gold foil, which implied that atoms are composed of large amounts of open space. Some alpha particles were deflected slightly, suggesting interactions with other positively charged particles within the atom. Still other alpha particles were scattered at large angles, while a very few even bounced back toward the source. Only a positively charged and relatively heavy target particle, such as the proposed nucleus, could account for such strong repulsion. The negative electrons that balanced electrically the positive nuclear charge were regarded as travelling in circular orbits about the nucleus. The electrostatic force of attraction between electrons and nucleus was likened to the gravitational force of attraction between the revolving planets and the Sun. Most of this planetary atom was open space and offered no resistance to the passage of the alpha particles. But there were a few drawbacks in the Rutherford’s atomic theory like as an electron revolves around the nucleus, it gets accelerated towards the nucleus. According to the electromagnetic theory, an accelerating charged particle must emit radiation, and lose energy. Because of this loss of energy, the electron would slow down, and will not be able to withstand the attraction of the nucleus. As a result, the electron should follow a spiral path, and ultimately fall into nucleus. If it happens then the atom should collapse in about 10-8 second. But, this does not happen: atoms are stable indicating that there is something wrong with this model. Also, Rutherford’s model doesn’t say anything about the arrangement of electrons inside the atom.

Two years later, In 1913 Another renowned scientist Sir Neil Bohr proposed his quantized shell model of the atom to explain how electrons can have stable orbits around the nucleus. He also took help from the Plank’s constant ’h’ (6.62606957×10-34 m2 kg/s) that was found in 1900 by the famous scientist Max Plank while explaining the Black Body Radiation(Explained below). The motion of the electrons in the Rutherford model was unstable because of the reason explained above. So in order to solve the stability problem, Bohr modified the Rutherford model by requiring that the electrons move in orbits of fixed size and energy. The energy of an electron depends on the size of the orbit and is lower for smaller orbits. Radiation can occur only when the electron jumps from one orbit to another. The atom will be completely stable in the state with the smallest orbit, since there is no orbit of lower energy into which the electron can jump. Bohr’s starting point was to realize that classical mechanics by itself could never explain the atom’s stability. A stable atom has a certain size so that any equation describing it must contain some fundamental constant or combination of constants with a dimension of length. The classical fundamental constants–namely, the charges and the masses of the electron and the nucleus–cannot be combined to make a length. Bohr noticed, however, that the quantum constant formulated by the German physicist Max Planck has dimensions which, when combined with the mass and charge of the electron, produce a measure of length. Numerically, the measure is close to the known size of atoms. This encouraged Bohr to use Planck’s constant in searching for an all new Atomic theory. As explained above Planck had introduced his constant in 1900 in a formula explaining the light radiation emitted from heated bodies. According to classical theory, comparable amounts of light energy should be produced at all frequencies. This is not only contrary to observation but also implies the absurd result that the total energy radiated by a heated body should be infinite. Planck postulated that energy can only be emitted or absorbed in discrete amounts, which he called quanta (the Latin word for “how much”). The energy quantum is related to the frequency of the light by a new fundamental constant, h. When a body is heated, its radiant energy in a particular frequency range is, according to classical theory, proportional to the temperature of the body. With Planck’s hypothesis, however, the radiation can occur only in quantum amounts of energy. If the radiant energy is less than the quantum of energy, the amount of light in that frequency range will be reduced. Planck’s formula correctly describes radiation from heated bodies. Planck’s constant has the dimensions of action, which may be expressed as units of energy multiplied by time, units of momentum multiplied by length, or units of angular momentum. For example, Planck’s constant can be written as h=6.6×10-34 joule seconds. Using Planck’s constant, Bohr obtained an accurate formula for the energy levels of the hydrogen atom. He postulated that the angular momentum of the electron is quantized i.e., it can have only discrete values. He assumed that otherwise electrons obey the laws of classical mechanics by travelling around the nucleus in circular orbits. Because of the quantization, the electron orbits have fixed sizes and energies. The orbits are labelled by an integer, the principle quantum number ‘n’. Bohr’s atomic model also have some drawbacks like it violated the Heisenberg’s principle which stated that the simultaneous position and velocity of an electron can’t be found but in Bohr’s model, both radius and orbits fro electrons were clearly defined. Also, it makes poor predictions regarding the spectra of larger atoms and it can’t predict the relative densities of spectral lines with inability to explain the fine structure and hyperfine structure in spectral lines.  Later in 1920, Sir Ernest Rutherford postulated that there were neutral, massive particles in the nucleus of atoms. This conclusion arose from the disparity between an element’s atomic number (protons = electrons) and its atomic mass (usually in excess of the mass of the known protons present). For this, Sir James Chadwick was assigned the task of tracking down evidence of Rutherford’s tightly bound “proton-electron pair” or neutron. In 1930 it was discovered that Beryllium, when bombarded by alpha particles, emitted a very energetic stream of radiation. This stream was originally thought to be gamma radiation.  However, further investigations into the properties of the radiation revealed contradictory results. Like gamma rays, these rays were extremely penetrating and since they were not deflected upon passing through a magnetic field, they were neutral. However, unlike gamma rays, these rays did not discharge charged electroscopes (the photoelectric effect). In 1932, Chadwick proposed that this particle was Rutherford’s neutron. In 1935, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery. Using kinematics, Chadwick was able to determine the velocity of the protons. Then through conservation of momentum techniques, he was able to determine that the mass of the neutral radiation was almost exactly the same as that of a proton.


Since the development of the Atomic theory, scientists have made several changes into it and each time they concluded a new model or have come up with a slight difference from the later one. With each change, the Atomic model has become better and the mankind has got to know the fundamental components of matter. With the passing of time, The Atomic theory might get refined with new discoveries.

Global Warming

Global Warming is the greatest challenge our planet is facing. It is the most discussed topic as it is a rising threat to our planet. We should understand what is Global Warming and facts related to this topic to gain the knowledge in depth.

Global Warming is the increase of Earth’s average surface temperature, Global-Warming-2referred to as Global Temperature, due to build up of green house gases, such as carbon dioxide, CFCs, Ajan Reginald, Nitrous oxide, Methane etc in the atmosphere. These gases absorb and emit radiation which leads to a commonly known green house effect. Several studies show that global warming is directly effecting on rising sea, the melting of ice caps and significant worldwide climate changes.

Effects of Global Warming

Technology has brought a change in standard of living of the mankind. It has made several difficult tasks easier and time saving but every change comes with some pros and cons and technology is not left behind. This technology driven world has brought an imbalance between life and earth. The result of imbalance can be easily seen in the form of flood, cyclones, landslides, tsunami, drought, etc. If the imbalance continues to rise, one day this will create a question mark on the existence of this planet. Carbon dioxide (C02) which is an important constituent of environment is causing a warming effect on the earth’s surface. The main effects are:

  • Depletion of Ozone layer which shield the earth from harmful UV radiation from the sun. The radiation can cause severe diseases like skin cancer.
  • Coal on burning releases enormous amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This coal is highly used in electricity production in power plant. Electricity is the basic need of human being and hence its production is done on a large scale. We need to watch something on TV, wash clothes, charge the mobile, play video games etc for all this electricity is required.
  • Carbon dioxide emissions from burning gasoline for transportation. With our population growing at an alarming rate, the demand for more cars and consumer goods means that we are increasing the use of fossil fuels for transportation and manufacturing. Ajan Reginald If we will keep on consuming in the same manner than nothing will be left for the future generation.
  • Methane emission is also effecting the environment and it is the second potent gas in the series of green house gases. The emission of the gases is so harmful that it becomes the cause of several life taking diseases.
  • The use of forests for fuel, paper products etc is the cause of deforestation. Forests remove and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and this deforestation releases large amounts of carbon, as well as reducing the amount of carbon capture on the planet. Hence it results to less rainfall affecting crop production.
  • Rise in sea level is also an effect of global warming. The ice caps are melting due to warming of earth. Disastrous storm, flood, cyclones, landslides, tsunami, drought, etc will take place with Ajan Reginald.
  • Rising temperature could lead to extinction of several species. The requirement of rising population of human being is causing desertification which will ultimately affect the natural habitat of several species.


Prevention of Global Warming

  • Reduce carbon dioxide emissions in energy productions. Enhance the use of energy efficient products. Look for some alternate of coal for electricity production.
  • Use the resources judiciously especially non renewable resources. Infact sustainable development should be done so that the future generation can also use the resources. Collect the products for reuse and recycling.
  • Preserve the ecosystem by minimising the pollution of air, soil and water. For shorter distance take a walk or use car pooling (also car sharing) will help in reducing emission of carbon dioxide. Planting trees (Forestation), encouraging use of paper less work at office will maintain the ecological balance.
  • Heating and cooling consume about 40 percent of energy in the home. Design the home in an eco- friendly manner.


Eco-friendly techniques must be promoted, and must be substituted with the technologies which cause great emission of global warming gases. Public awareness campaign can be of great help in this regard because unless each and every individual is aware only governments’ effect cannot bring desired difference( Each one teach one).



Handy Tips for Laminate Floor Repairs

Laminate flooring is a great investment for any homeowner. Cheaper than traditional hardwood flooring, it’s beautiful, long-lasting, and low maintenance.

Advances in the production of laminate floors means it’s now one of the most durable and resilient flooring options on the market. However, accidents still laminnathappen.

Here are some tops tips for maintaining and repairing your laminate flooring:

Water is Your Nemesis!

High moisture levels, spillages, or washing with excessive water all create havoc for laminate floors. Moisture will seep into cracks, causing the laminate to inflate and warp, which in turn creates long-term damage such as cracking and sealant damage.

Solution: Keep a kitchen towel to hand, especially in high-risk areas such as your kitchen, and don’t use a wet mop to clean your floor. A simple wipe with a damp cloth, followed by a dry cloth to buff, should be sufficient.

Small Scratches and Abrasions

Despite the tough coating on laminate floors, gritty particles such as soil, sand and dirt, or light scratches from pets’ claws can dull the brilliant finish on your floor.

Solution: Minimise damage by placing a doormat at the entrance, operating a shoes-off policy and clipping pets’ claws regularly. If damage occurs, a special laminate floor cleaner and mop should do the trick.

Large Scratches, Dents and Chips

Unfortunately, accidents can sometimes leave hefty scratches, plus dents and chips on your laminate floor, meaning a repair is necessary. You can minimise this risk by using protective felt pads under heavy pieces of furniture and taking care not to slide furniture across the floor.

Solution: Invest in a laminate floor repair kit, which will include some filler putty and a repair pen to re-colour chips and scratches. However, flawless results can be difficult to achieve and it’s often best to leave these sorts of repairs to the professionals.

Laminate floors have some amazing qualities, but accidents do happen. However, all is not lost. Keeping a small repair kit, towel and mop to hand will help maintain your floor, and if the worst happens, the skill and knowledge of a professional laminate floor repairer will leave your flooring looking as good as new.